Read free Magazines
7-11-2014, 18:36PrintThe reading is the process of significance and comprehension of some type of information and/or ideas stored in a support and transmitted by means of some type of code, usually a language, which can be visual or tactile (for example, the system Braille). Other types of reading free magazine in pdf cannot be based on the language such like the notation or the pictographs.
The reading free magazine in pdf is not a neutral activity: it sets in game to the reader and a series of complex relations with the text. More, when the book is closed: into what does the reader turn? In a simple glutton capable of digesting letters? A woodcutter whose only work is to clear the literary scenery?
Weaver has raised three definitions for the reading free magazine in pdf:
To be able to pronounce the written words.
To be able to identify the words and the meaning of each of them.
To be able to extract and understand the meaning of a text.
Mechanics of the reading free magazine in pdf
The physiology allows to comprise the human aptitude to read from the biological point of view, thanks to the study of the human eye, the field of vision and the aptitude to fix the sight.
The psychology helps to define the mental process that is carried out during the reading free magazine in pdf, be already in the phase of decodificación of characters, symbols and images, or in the phase of association of the visualization with the word. The psychological processes of the reading free magazine in pdf were studied for the first time at the end of the XIXth century by Emile Javal, the director of that time of the laboratory of ophthalmology of the University of The Sorbona.
The clinical pedagogics occupy of the educational aspects as for the process education - learning of the reading free magazine in pdf and writing, of the specific disturbances of the reading free magazine in pdf, and the skills necessary for an effective reading free magazine in pdf.
reading free magazine in pdf process
Girl reading free magazine in pdf (1876). Picture of Ilya Repin.
The process by means of which we read consists of four steps:
The visualization. When we read we do not slide in a continuous way the look on the words, but we realize a discontinuous process: every word absorbs the ocular fixation during approximately 200-269 milliseconds and in scarcely 69 milliseconds it skips to the following one, in what it is known as a movement sacádico. The displacement speed is relatively constant between a few and other individuals, but while a slow reader focuses between five and ten letters for time, a habitual reader can focus approximately a score of letters; also there influences the reading free magazine in pdf speed the work of identification of the words in question, which changes in relation to its knowledge on the part of the reader or not.
The phonation. Conscious or unconscious oral joint, it might be said that the information goes on from the sight to the speech. It is in this stage in which they can give themselves the vocalización and subvocalización of the reading free magazine in pdf. The subvocalized reading free magazine in pdf can become a bad habit that obstructs the reading free magazine in pdf and the comprehension, but it can be fundamental for the comprehension of reading free magazine in pdf of materials like the poetry or the transcriptions of oral speeches.
The audition. The information goes on from the speech to the ear (the adding of the soundtrack introauditiva is generally unconscious).
The cerebración. The information goes on from the ear to the brain and there integrate the elements that are coming separated. With this stage it reaches the comprehension process. There exists also the process of extraction, interpretation and reflection
Special reading free magazine in pdfs
The lesson of writing different from those of the languages of the west one or from special writing as writing for blind persons or musical notation very much of the already described thing differs.
Direccionalidad of the reading online magazines
Experiments with different writing have demonstrated that not only the ocular movements get accustomed to the direction of reading online magazines but the whole system percepcional. For example, if he writes himself from right to left and of above to below, how into traditional, not alone Chinese the movements sacádicos change its directions, but also the vision threshold (perceptual span) and the period of identification of the words (word identification span) they change its forms.
Writing that use special characters has no alphabet. For example in the Chinese writing every character represents a syllable, that is to say on having read a text character for character it is possible to vocalize syllable for syllable. Of a character it is possible to deduce its significance immediately. That's why, although the typography differs much of that from the Occident, there are no so much differences: the durations of the fixation, the distances of the extracted ones and the extensions of the spans differ, but the essentials as subvocalización and retrogressions are almost identical.
Nicolae Tonitza - Lectura.jpg
Braille is a tactile writing used by blind persons, that is to say it is read by the hands instead of the eyes. The lesson of this writing is much more sequential and slowly that that of visual reading online magazines.
Fragment of the Moonlight, of Claude Debussy (1890).
Musical notation is the writing to note down music. Although it is possible to sing a melody for notes it is not possible to vocalize this writing straight, especially if it contains chords, that is to say several notes sound simultaneously. In general the reader does not turn notes into speech but yes into movements of the body. The ocular movements make themselves comfortable to the content of the "text": if the melody dominates it has more extracted horizontal, if the harmony dominates has more extracted vertical.
The reading online magazines of mathematical formulae differs from reader reader. Although in general they are read from left to right, there are many special cases, for example if the formula contains fractions or counterfoils. The reading online magazines of mathematical formulae is much more abstract than the reading online magazines of all the other writing: it is possible to vocalize a formula, but it does not help that to comprise its sense. The formulae comprehension is an interesting area but there are few experiments in this ambience.
The reading online magazines of chemical formulae needs the knowledge of the nomenclature or rules of chemical formulation, of which diverse variants exist. This way for example, the compound which chemical formula is H2SO4 can be read or named of the following forms, all of them accepted by the IUPAC:
Sulphuric acid. (Traditional nomenclature)
Acid tetraoxosulfúrico (VI). (Nomenclature of Stock previous to 2005)
Tetraoxosulfato (VI) of hydrogen. (Systematical nomenclature - Recommendations IUPAC previous to 2005)
Dihidróxidodióxidoazufre. (Nomenclature of addition - Recommendations IUPAC 2005).
Dihidrogeno (tetraoxidosulfato). (Nomenclature of hydrogen - Recomend
reading online magazines skills
There are different skills of reading online magazines that serve to adapt the way of reading online magazines to the target that the reader chases. On having read, the two most common intentions are the maximization of the speed and the maximization of comprehension of the text. In general these targets are opposite and it is necessary to coordinate a balance between the two.
Between the conventional skills, which chase to maximize the comprehension, there are the sequential reading online magazines, the intensive reading online magazines and the punctual reading online magazines.
Sequential reading online magazines
The sequential reading online magazines is the common way of reading online magazines a text. The reader reads in its individual time from the beginning finally without repetitions or omissions.
Intensive reading online magazines
The target of the intensive reading online magazines is to understand the finished text and to analyze the intentions of the author. It is not an alone change of skill of the attitude of the reader; it is not identified by the text or its protagonists but he analyzes the content, the language and the form of argumentation of the author neutrally.
Punctual reading online magazines
On having read a punctual text, the reader only reads the passages that he is interested in. This skill serves to absorb a lot of information in a little time.
From the XVIIIth century, the intensive reading online magazines begins, this one was reserved only for few ones (monks and students of the universities and academies). This form was based in reading online magazines works completely, until they were remaining recorded in the memory. The reader reconstructs the book and the sense.
Skills focused at the speed of the reading magazines
Speed of the reading magazines
The speed in the normal reading magazines depends on the ends and its measurement unit expresses itself in words per minute (ppm):
for memorizing, less than 100 ppm
reading magazines for learning (100-200 ppm)
comprehension reading magazines (200-400 ppm)
fast reading magazines:
informative (400-700 ppm)
Between them, the comprehension reading magazines is probably the most important process, since it is the one that motivates the daily reading magazines of most of the people. On the other hand, the fast reading magazines is useful to process superficially large numbers of text, but it is below the comprehension level.
The suggestions for the election of a certain speed of reading magazines must include the flexibility; the repeated reading magazines of parts of the text when there are several relatively together concepts or when the material is not familiar to the reader and the acceleration when it is a familiar material or presents few concepts.
Between the skills of reading magazines that think about how to improve the speed there are the diagonal reading magazines, the scanning, Speedreading magazines and Photoreading magazines.
Diagonal reading magazines
In diagonal reading magazines the reader only reads the special passages of a text, like qualifications, the first phrase of a paragraph, accented words tipográficamente (bold faces, bastardillas), important paragraphs (summary, conclusion) and the environment of important terms as formulae ("2x+3=5"), you list («the first«, «the second«...), conclusions ("that's why") and technical terms («fixed costs»). It is called a diagonal reading magazine because the look moves quickly from the left top corner to the right low corner. This way it is possible to read a very rapid text at the expense of details and comprehension of the style. This skill is used especially on having read web pages (hypertext).
Scanning is a skill to look for individual terms in a text, based on the theory of identification of words comparing its images. The reader imagines the word in the style of source of the text and later it moves the look quickly on the text.
History of the fast reading magazine
The use of skills for fast reading magazine began to develop at the beginning of the XXth century, when the volume of the written information had increased greatly and had to be within reach of major number of persons.
During the First World war many pilots were losing vital seconds during combat on having tried to distinguish if the plane that was coming closer age of the proper edict or of the enemy. In answer to it the called "method was designed taquitoscópico", that was consisting of showing planes on a screen during a few seconds to train the pilots to distinguish them. Gradually there was increasing the quantity of images that were projected every time and the exhibition time was diminishing. This idea was taken the first courses of fast reading magazine, projecting more and more words on a screen and reducing progressively the exhibition time. Nevertheless, if this method is used only, the persons tieden to return at its speed of habitual reading magazine, since in fact a new reading magazine skill has not developed. The increase in the reading magazine speed observed in the soldiers that they used the method taquitoscópico owed probably to the motivation.
Time later, in the sixties, it was discovered that with a suitable training the eyes learn to move more rapid, with which there increases the quantity of words that is possible to decode every minute.
The modern skills of fast reading magazine focus in the "dynamic reception", that is to say, they try to come to a direct mental reading magazine that allows to save the time of the steps 2 and 3 (The vocalización and the audition) of the described reading magazine process arrives, since it is not possible to speak or to listen to any more than 100 words per minute. For it they try the global visualization of several words or entire phrases. Nevertheless, the studies of reading magazine comprehension make to see that the fast reading magazine, already it is informative or of exploration, it is useful to process large number of information in a little time, but inadequate like study habit.
The skill of fast reading journals
The well-known skill like speed reading journals (‘fast reading journals’) it combines many different aspects to read more rapid. In general it is similar to the diagonal reading journals but it includes other factors as concentration and exercises for the eyes.
Some critics of whom this skill is only the diagonal reading journals with different name combined with factors known by common sense. There is no test that exercises for the eyes improve the visual perception. It is not necessary to pay seminars for knowledge that concentration and good lighting are essential to read rapidly.
Some of them think that it is a question of a skill to exercise the concentration during the reading journals, what allows to reduce greatly the time of absorption of the information. Many have developed the capacity of fast reading journals for their own means, and coincide that the only key is the concentration. r Paul R. Scheele, the reader reads a page in whole. At first it gains a general idea of the text using diagonal reading journals to read index, qualifications and special paragraphs as the text in the reverse of a book. Later it looks at the pages one for one, one detains a few seconds with not focused look, in the very relaxed mental state. After the content of the text reads a this way "active" page closing the eyes and giving free rein to the thoughts. The skill is compared with the memory eidética. because experiments demonstrated that readership does not extract information of not focused passages. They suspect that the information obtained by Photoreading journals comes from the diagonal reading journals and from the imagination of the reader. But although it was very easy to verify the skill, experiments do not exist doing it.
A fast reader needs to know: comprehension ÷ time = V
V = Entire speed (of well-read words less the percentage of not included, divided between the whole of the second personnel, multiplied by 60.
Example 1: A page with 600 words, reading journals in 4 minutes with 30 not included per cent, is evaluated this way: 600 - 30 per cent = 420 ÷ 4 minutes = 105 words per minute.
Example 2: 2 pages with 200 words each one are read in 2:20 (min. seg.; with half a page badly included, it is calculated this way: 400-100 = 300 ÷ 140 = 2.14 X 60 = 123 words per minute.
The first hieroglyphics were designed 5000 years ago, on the other hand the most ancient phonetic alphabets have about 3500 year. The first works written sometimes were allowing to have only a part of the text.
Between the IInd century and the IVth, the introduction of the parchment allowed the writing of works composed by several long sheets of paper that could keep together and be read consecutively. The book of the current epoch continues the same beginning, but the new presentation allows to consult its content in a less linear way, that is to say, to gain access straight to certain passage of the text.
About the Xth century the words were writing to themselves one after other one, without spaces neither in target nor punctuation (scriptio it continues):
On the other hand, although texts that date of the Vth century B.C. testify that in Greece the reading journals was practised in silence, probably it was an exceptional practice for centuries. The reading journals aloud was almost systematical. In its Confessions, the catholic saint Agustín de Hipona mentions its stupefaction when he saw the saint Ambrosio de Milán reading journals in silence.
Middle Age and Renaissance
For the long time the reader was not completely free in the selection of the reading journals material. The ecclesiastic censoring, it had between its first precedents the establishment of the license previous to impression in the Metz diocese in 1485. Pope Alejandro VI arranged the works censoring for the dioceses of Cologne, Mainz, Tréveris and Magdeburg in 1501 and then it was generalized in the Catholic Church by León X.
In Spain the license previous to the Real Advice to the edition of the works was extended to the whole territory by disposition of the crown. Although the archbishops of Toledo and Seville, as the bishops of Burgos and Salamanca had attributions to determine these licenses, the ordinances of the Coruña of 1554 reserved such activities to the Real Advice, that is to say, the State.
In the year 1559 the Sacred Gathering of the Inquisition of the Roman Catholic Church (later called the Gathering for the Doctrine of the Faith) created the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, whose intention was to prepare the reader against the reading journals of the works included in the list.
The term Ad Adsum Delphini (for use of the prince), refers precisely to special editions of classic authors that Luis XIV (1638-1715), authorized to read to its son, in that, sometimes, things were censured. Still at present, one applies to the works altered with didactic intention or to works censured with political intention.
Nowadays the reading journals is the main way for which the people get information (even across a screen), but this has been this way alone for the last 150 years approximately. Except few exceptions, before the industrial Revolution the literate people or learned age a small percentage of the population in any nation.
Bible of Gutenberg.
The reading journals turned into an activity of many persons in the XVIIIth century. Between the workers, the novel by deliveries kept on being read aloud up to the First World war. Therefore, in Europe, the oral reading magazines in pdf format, the singing and the psalmody occupied a central place, as it does it still in the Jewish, Christian and Moslem religious ceremonies.
During the XIXth century, most of the western countries tried the literacy of its population, although the campaigns had major effectiveness as for population and time between the countries of Protestant religion, where there is considered to be one of the important rights of the individual the being capable of reading magazines in pdf format the Bible.
The reading magazines in pdf format in line
I free and, electronic book or e-book
The electronic books are an electronic or digital version of a book (with a quite similar or equal edition to a version in role). The most common formats are.doc.lit and.pdf and it is possible to have access to them acquiring the copy (cd or I file) by means of payment or across virtual libraries.
It is known as a hypertext to the form of structure of the information across linkage, is part of the interface of the user. They make possible the fork of subject-matters or of the reading magazines in pdf format across hyperties
Ezine, electronic magazine or e-zine
Periodicals that use like diffusion way an electronic format and that occur rarely estár structured with hypertext.
Web binnacle that compiles chronologically files of text, image or sound of one or more authors.
There are libraries that offer its undivided assets (digitized documents and e-books) to the users across Internet. There constitute at present a frequent tool in the investigation.
reading magazines in pdf format instruction
Teaching to read
The reading magazines in pdf format instruction will take as a purpose to achieve a correct mechanical reading magazines in pdf format. In this phase the pupil has to acquire a series of automatisms that allow him to interpret a few graphic signs across the visual perception and to give them an oral identity. It has to do all these associations with rapidity, with a speed that allows him to read mechanically and understand the sense of what he is reading magazines in pdf format. This way we enter the comprehensive reading magazines in pdf format. To realize the comprehension of a written text not only it has to associate the letters with the corresponding sounds, but also, the words with its meaning. Across the reading magazines in pdf format, first mechanics and later comprehensive, it is necessary to go so far as to reach a position of critical reflection about what it has been read, entering this way the reflective reading magazines in pdf format.
Several teaching methods of the reading magazines in pdf format exist; the most excellent are the following ones:
The phonic method is based on the alphabetical beginning, which implies the more or less direct association between phonemes and grafemas. This method, which application must be as early as possible, comprises an explicit education of this beginning, with special attention to the most problematic relations and going from the vowels to the consonants. The theoretical foundation of this method is that once included this systematical the child is qualified to understand any word that appears before him.
This direction of learning, first the skill and then the meaning, is the one that usually causes more criticism, meanwhile one argues that it is slightly stimulant to delay the most important of the reading magazines in pdf format, the comprehension of what is read. The method, obviously only useful in languages with alphabetical writing system, raises problems in some of these, where the relation phoneme / letter is not not much less unidirectional.
The global method for his part, thinks that the attention must center on the words since there are the units that have meaning, which it is in the end the target of the reading magazines in pdf format. Logically, this method is based on the initial memorizing of a series of words that serve like base for the creation of the first statements; later, the meaning of other words is recognized by the help of support contextual (drawings, previous knowledge, etc.). In fact, a basic aspect of this method is the conviction that the meaning of a statement does not demand the individual knowledge of all the words that compose it, but it is a global result of the download free magazines pdf realized that, in turn, it ends up assigning a meaning to those words earlier unknown.
The method constructivista, based on work of Jean Piaget, raises the download free magazines pdf instruction from the implicit hypotheses that the child develops about the phonological aspect; this is, a child in its normal learning of the written language ends up developing naturally ideas on the writing, in the sense of warning, for example, that it is not the same that the drawings and going so far as to establish relations between the oral thing and the written thing.
During decades, a debate appeared on the relevancy of the different methods. In the last years, the debate re-arose between the investigators who showed the fundamental roll of the phonological conscience for learning of the download free magazines pdf and the writing and the promoters of the approach of the integral language Stanovich, 2000). At present, the discussion about the methods has remained decisive, since there exists an overwhelming empirical evidence of studies that show the importance of the phonological conscience in the process of the literacy (Ehri et to., 2001; Berninger and Cotiff, 1998).
In general it is assumed that it is possible and necessary to integrate aspects of the phonic and global method for a successful education and learning.
download free magazines pdf promotion
In the frame of XVII International Fair of the Book of Guadalajara (Mexico, 2003) there was carried out I Promoters' Meeting of the download free magazines pdf.
download free magazines pdf comprehension
The download free magazines pdf comprehension has major weight inside the context of the exercises of the reasoning and takes as a target to develop the skill to read in analytical form; it constitutes one of the basic targets of the new approaches of the education.
The exercises of comprehension of download magazines pdf measure:
the aptitude to recognize the meaning of a word or phrase in the context of other ideas;
the skill to understand and to identify the fundamental of the download magazines pdf;
the skill to identify the relations between the ideas to realize the analysis and synthesis of the information.
Evaluation of the download magazines pdf
Since the download magazines pdf intervenes in the acquisition of multiple types of knowledge, there exist diverse types of download magazines pdf test, which change in accordance with what tries to be evaluated and if they are applied in children or in adults. The tests standard must be used on a big readership sample, with which the one who interprets them can determine what is typical for an individual of certain age. The reading competition depends on many factors, in addition to the intelligence.
The common types of reading test are:
Visual words reading. Words are used increasing the difficulty until the reader cannot read or understand what appears before him. The difficulty level manipulates with a major letters o quantity syllables, using less common words or with complex phonetic-phonological relations.
reading of "not words". There are used lists of pronounceable but meaningless syllables that must be read aloud. The increase of the difficulty is achieved by means of longer sequences.
Comprehension reading. There appears before the reader a text or passage of the same one that can be read in silence or aloud. Then questions appear related to evaluate what has been comprised.
reading fluency. There is evaluated the speed with which the individual can name words.
reading precision. The skill is evaluated of naming correctly the words of a page.
Some tests incorporate several of the previous types, for example, the reading test Nelson-Denny it measures so much the speed with which it is possible to read a certain passage as the skill then to answer questions on him.
Benefits of the reading
The reading stimulates the cerebral activity, strengthens the connections neuronales and there increases the cognitive reservation of the brain, a factor that it protects from illnesses neurodegenerativas.
The brain like that realizes better its functions, increases the answer rapidity, stimulates the process of thought, the arrangement and interrelation of ideas and concepts, the memory and the imagination. Also it facilitates the interaction and the social relations since it facilitates the development of topics of conversation.